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作业习题及答案
英语语言学试卷及答案
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练习八

I. Directions: Read each of the following statements carefully. Decide which one of the four choices best completes the statement and put the letter A, B, C or D in the brackets. (2%X10=20%)

1.Which of the following is not a major branch of linguistics?

A. phonetics     B. phonology    C. speech     D. syntax

2. A _________ study of language describes a language as it is at some particular point in time.

A. synchronic     B. historical `     C. comparative    D. syntactic

3.[b] is a voiced bilabial _____________.

A. affricate    B. fricative     C. liquid    D. stop

4.The _________ is the most flexible, and is responsible for more varieties of articulation than any other.

A. nasal cavity    B. oral cavity     C. tongue     D. lips

5. Which of the following affixes differs from others

A. –ly    B. –bility    C. –ing     D. –ful

6. __________ modify the meaning of the stem, but usually do not change the part of speech of the original word.

A. Prefixes     B. Suffixes    C. Roots    D. Derivatives

7. An embedded clause functions as a ____________ unit in its matrix clause.

A. lexical     B. linear     C. grammatical     D. structural

8. Natural languages are viewed to vary according to ______________ set on UG principles to particular values.

A. rules     B. theories     C. principles     D. parameters

9.The classic semantic triangle reflects ________________.

A. the naming theory          B. the conceptualist view

C. the contextualist view     D. the behaviorist view

10.Which pair of words belongs to the complementary antonyms?

A. old, young         B. female, male      C. buy, sell       D. above, below

II. Directions: Fill in the blank in each of the following statements with one word, the first letter of which is already given as a clue. Note that you are to fill in One word only, and you are not allowed to change the letter given. (1%X10=10%)

 

11. D___________ means that language can be used to refer to contexts removed from the immediate situation of the speaker.

12. T________ are pitch variations, which are caused by the differing rates of vibration of the vocal cords.

13. [p] and [ph], the two allophones of the same phoneme /p/, are said to be in c______________ distribution.

14. M___________ is the smallest meaningful unit of language.

15. Suffixes are added to the end of s_____________.

16. The affixes “-es” conveys a g________________ meaning.

17. The h_____________ order can be best illustrated with a tree diagram of constituent structure.

18. The application of syntactic movement rules t_____________ a sentence from the level of D-structure to that of S-structure.

19. The grammatical well-formedness of a sentence is called g____________________.

20. A predicate is something said about an a_____________ in terms of predication analysis.

III. Directions: Judge whether each of the following statements is true or false. Put a T for true or F for false in the brackets in front of each statement. If you think a statement is false, you must explain why you think so and give the correct version. (2%X10=20%)

( ) 21. Modern linguistics gives priority to the written form of language.

( ) 22. Chomsky defines competence as the actual realization of the ideal user’s knowledge of the rules of his language in linguistic communication.

(  ) 23. The basic principle of the International Phonetic Alphabet is using a different letter for each distinguishable speech sound.

(  ) 24. Phonetics is concerned with the speech sounds which distinguishmeaning.

( ) 25. Inflectional morphology studies the word-formation.

( ) 26. In English syntactic analysis, four phrasal categories are commonly recognized and discussed, namely, noun phrases (NP), verb phrase (VP), prepositional phrase (PP), and adverbial phrase (AP).

( ) 27. A complete list of words and phrases is internalized in the mind of a native speaker.

( ) 28. Since English has so many loan words, complete synonyms are commonlyseen.

( ) 29. John Austin made a distinction between what he called “constatives” and “performatives”.

( ) 30. While English has borrowed most heavily from French, other languages have also made their contributions.