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练习十五

I.Directions: Read each of the following statements carefully. Decide which one of the four choices best completes the statement and put the letter A, B, C or D in the brackets. (2%X10=20%)

1. All the utterances that can be made to serve the same purpose may vary in their __________ form.

A. pragmatic    B. semantic       C. syntactic     D. grammatical

2. ______________ are those speech acts whose point is to try to get the hearer to do something.

A. Representatives    B. Directives      C. Expressives         D. Commissives

3. The syntactic change of English involves _______________.

A. rule loss          B. rule gain      C. rule modification     D. all of the above

4. Children have a strong desire to _____________ grammatical rules, particular when they see adults use certain rules optionally.

A. assimilate        B. complicate     C. simplify and regularize      D. all of the above

5. In general, language characteristic of ___________ register is more often used in the written form than in the spoken form.

A. informal           B. formal      C. neutral        D. none of the above

6. Which of the following belongs to the phonological features of Black English

A. The frequent absence of various forms of the copular “be”

B. The use of double negation constructions

C. The deletion of some word-final stop consonants

D. All of the above

7. English-based pidgins are characterized by ____________________.

A. an absence of any complex grammatical morphology

B. a limited vocabulary     C. both A and B       D. none of the above

8. Which of the following statement concerns the processes of language perception, comprehension and production

A. A number of brain areas called language centers.

B. The intricate interconnections via the central nervous system

C. The extremely interdependent nature of most brain functions.

D. All of the above.

9. Language acquisition is contrasted with language learning on the ground that acquisition is ____________, and focuses on __________.

A. subconscious……form         B. conscious……form

C. subconscious……meaning     D. conscious……meaning

10. Which of the following stages does not belong to the stages of first language acquisition.

A. The one-word stage           B. The two-word stage

C. The three-word stage         D. None of the above

II. Directions: Fill in the blank in each of the following statements with one word, the first letter of which is already given as a clue. Note that you are to fill in One word only, and you are not allowed to change the letter given. (1%X10=10%)

11. P___________ is the study of how speakers of a language use sentences to effect successful communication.

12. C_________ is generally considered as constituted by the knowledge shared by the speaker and the hearer.

13. I___________ borrowing represents a continual readjustment of a language’s grammatical system as it develops from one state of equilibrium to another.

14. The original, or ancestral, form of a language family which has ceased to exist is called the p_________________.

15. Registers are also known as s_______________ dialects, in contrast to language varieties that are associated with the social or regional grouping of their customary users.

16. An excessive use of euphemism may have n_____________ effects.

17. A c_________ language is originally a pidgin that has become established as a native language in some speech community.

18. The relationship between the coding system of language and the conceptualizing system of thought is c_____________ rather than genetic.

19. C___________ speech refers to those simple and modified speech used by parents, baby-sitter, etc. when they talk to young children who are acquiring their native language.

20. I_____________ consists of a series of interlocking and approximate linguistic systems in-between and yet distinct from the learner’s native and target languages.

III. Directions: Judge whether each of the following statements is true or false. Put a T for true or F for false in the brackets in front of each statement. If you think a statement is false, you must explain why you think so and give the correct version. (2%X10=20%)

( ) 21. Nonstandard languages are substandard languages.

( ) 22. In sociolinguistics, taboo denotes any prohibition on the use of particular lexical items to refer to objects or acts.

( ) 23. The fact that successful translation between languages can be made is one of the major arguments against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

( ) 24. That children acquire a language is simply a process of internalizing all the expressions of language.

( ) 25. The optimum age for second language acquisition accords with the maxim “the younger the better”.

( )26. All normal children have equal ability to acquire their first language.

( )27. Inflectional affixes are those whose major function is to attach themselves to other morphemes to form a new word.

( )28. As pidgins are simplified languages with reduced grammatical features, they are in essence inferior to the English language.

( ) 29. Significant relationship has been found between talkativeness and overall proficiency in a second language.

( )30. The majority of the errors made by the language learners can be explained by mother tongue interference.