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练习十二

I. Directions: Read each of the following statements carefully. Decide which one of the four choices best completes the statement and put the letter A, B, C or D in the brackets. (2%X10=20%)

1. _____________ are those speech acts whose point is to bring about immediate changes by saying something.

A. Directives     B. Commissives     C. Expressives     D. Declarations

2. Which of the following statements belongs to the content of the maxim of quantity under the CP

A. Do make your contribution more informative than is required.

B. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.

C. Do not say what you believe to be false.

D. Make your contribution as informative as required.

3. To date, about ___________ language families have been documented in historical linguistic literature.

A. four     B. ten     C. twenty     D. thirty

4. Which of the following loan words differs from others in origin

A. tea     B. ginseng    C. guitar     D. typhoon

5. A particular register often distinguishes itself from other registers by ____________.

A. having a number of distinctive words

B. using words or phrases in a particular way

C. special grammatical constructions

D. all of the above

6. In general, women’s language tends to be more______________.

A. indirect     B. straightforward     C. impolite    D. blunt

7. The angular gyrus is crucial for__________.

A. the matching of a spoken form with a perceived object

B. the naming of objects

C. the comprehension of written language

D. all of the above

8. What are the major functions of language

A. Interpersonal communication     B. Intrapersonal communication

C. Both A and B                           D. None of the above

9. ____________ are frequently heard in babbling, but rarely appear in children’s first words. However, when they appear again, they are among the latest sounds to master.

A. /b/ and /m/             B. /d/ and / p/          C. /k/ and /s/             D. /l/ and /r/

10. Which of the following statements is NOT true of the characteristics at the two-word stage of the first language acquisition

A. At first, children’s utterances appear to be strings of two holophrastic utterances.

B. Later they begin to form actual two-word sentences with clear syntactic and semantic relations.

C. Children’s two-word expressions contain some inflectional affixes.

D. Children’s two-word utterances can express a certain variety of grammatical relations indicated by word order.

 

II. Directions: Fill in the blank in each of the following statements with one word, the first letter of which is already given as a clue. Note that you are to fill in One word only, and you are not allowed to change the letter given. (1%X10=10%)

 

11. Most of the violations of the four maxims give rise to conversational i_________________.

12. A___________ is the deletion of a word-final vowel segment.

13. C_____________ is a kind of abbreviation of otherwise longer words or phrases.

14. B_______________ is a process by which new words are formed by taking away the suffix of an existing word.

15. Language varieties other than the standard are called nonstandard, or v_____________ language.

16. A p__________ is a variety of language that is generally used by native speakers of other languages as a medium of communicatio.

17. Brain l___________ is the localization of cognitive and perceptual functions in a particular hemisphere of the brain.

18. When language and thought are identical or closely parallel to each other, we may regard thought as “s__________ speech”, and speech as “overt thought”.

19. The n_________ view of language acquisition is that humans are equipped with the neural prerequisites for language and language use, just as birds are biologically “prewired” to learn the songs of their species.

20. A___________ is a process of adapting to the culture and value system of the second language community.

III. Directions: Judge whether each of the following statements is true or false. Put a T for true or F for false in the brackets in front of each statement. If you think a statement is false, you must explain why you think so and give the correct version. (2%X10=20%)

( ) 21. Perfect bilingualism is uncommon because it is rare for individuals to be a perfect user of two languages in a full range of situations.

( ) 22. Some slang terms remain and become acceptable language used by the whole society.

( ) 23. The language system does not necessarily provide specifics of one’sworld views.

( ) 24. The imitation, like overt teaching, plays a major role in the child’s mastery of language.

( ) 25. An error produced in a learner’s second language utterance is considered to be an indication of the actual acquisition process in action.

( ) 26. Only when a maxim under cooperative principle is blatantly violated and the hearer knows that it is being violated do conversational implicatures arise.

( ) 27. Generally speaking, left hemisphere is responsible for language and speech, analytic reasoning, associative thought, etc., while the right hemisphere is responsible for perception of nonlinguistic sounds, holistic reasoning, recognition of musical melodies, etc.

( )28. Language acquisition is primarily the acquisition of the grammatical system of language.

( )29. According to Searle, all the acts that belong to the same category share the same purpose or the same illocutionary point.

( )30. UG is a system of linguistic knowledge and a human species-spe-cific gift which exists in the mind or brain of a normal human be-ing.