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Chapter 3 Morphology

I. Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False:

l.T     2.F     3.T    4.T     5.T     6.T     7.T    8.F    9.F    10.T

 

II. Fill in each blank below with one word which begins with the letter given:

 

11. Morpheme     12. grammatical     13. Bound     14. derivative    15.Derivative

16. suffix     17. Compounding     18. morphological     19. derivation     20. stem

 

III. There are four choices following each statement. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement:

2l.D     22.D     23.B     24.B     25.C     26. C     27. D     28. A     29. B    30. C

IV. Define the following terms:

31. Morphology: Morphology is a branch of grammar which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed.

32. inflectional morphology: The inflectional morphology studies the inflections

33. derivational morphology: Derivational morphology is the study of word- formation.

34. Morpheme: It is the smallest meaningful unit of language.

35. free morpheme: Free morphemes are the morphemes which are independent units of meaning and can be used freely all by themselves or in combination with oth-er morphemes.

36. bound morpheme: Bound morphemes are the morphemes which cannot be used indepen-dently but have to be combined with other morphemes, either free or bound, to form a word.

37. Root: A root is often seen as part of a word; it can never stand by itself al-though it bears clear, definite meaning; it must be combined with another root or an affix to form a word.

38. Affix: Affixes are of two types: inflectional and derivational. Inflectional affixes manifest various grammatical relations or grammatical categories, while derivational affixes are added to an existing form to create a word.

39. Prefix: Prefixes occur at the begin-ning of a word . Prefixes modify the meaning of the stem, but they usually do not change the part of speech of the original word.

40. Suffix: Suffixes are added to the end of the stems; they modify the meaning of the original word and in many cases change its part of speech.

41. Derivation: Derivation is a process of word formation by which derivative affixes are added to an existing form to create a word.

42. Compounding: Compounding can be viewed as the combination of two or sometimes more than two words to create new words.

 

V. Anwser the following questions:

43. What are the main features of the English compounds ?

Orthographically a compound can be written as one word, two separate words with or without a hyphen in between. Syntactically, the part of speech of a compound is determined by the last element. Semantically, the meaning of a compound is idiomatic, not calcu-lable from the meanings of all its components. Phonetically, the word stress of a compound usually falls on the first element.

 

44. Discuss the types of morphemes with examples.

Free morphemes: They are the independent units of meaning and can be used freely all by themselves, for example, “book-” in the word “bookish”.

Bound morphemes: They are those that cannot be used independently but have to be combined with other morphemes, either free or bound, to form a word such as “-ish” in “bookish”. Bound morphemes can be subdivided into roots and affixes. A root is seen as part of a word; it can never stand by itself although it has a clear and definite meaning, such as “gene-” in the word “generate”. Affixes are of two types: inflectional and derivational. Inflectional morphemes manifest various grammatical relations or grammatical categories such as “-s” in the word “books” to indicate plurality of nouns. Derivational affixes are added to an existing form to create a word such as “mis-” in the word “misinform”. Derivational affixes can also be divided into prefixes and suffixes. Prefixes occur at the beginning of a word such as “dis- ” in the word “dislike”, while suffixes occur at the end of a word such as “-less” in the word “friendless”.