教学大纲
授课教案
教学课件
作业习题及答案
英语语言学试卷及答案
主讲教师授课录像
 
 首页 > 教学资源 > 作业习题

Chapter 6:Pragmatics

I. Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False:

1. Both semantics and pragmatics study how speakers of a language use sentences to effect successful communication

2. Pragmatics treats the meaning of language as something intrinsic and inherent.

3. It would be impossible to give an adequate description of meaning if the context of language use was left unconsidered.

4. What essentially distinguishes semantics and pragmatics is whether in the study of meaning the context of use is considered.

5. The major difference between a sentence and an utterance is that a sentence is not uttered while an utterance is.

6. The meaning of a sentence is abstract, but context-dependent.

7. The meaning of an utterance is decontexualized, therefore stable.

8. Utterances always take the form of complete sentences

9. Speech act theory was originated with the British philosopher John Searle.

10. Speech act theory started in the late 50’s of the 20th century.

11. Austin made the distinction between a constative and a performative.

12. Perlocutionary act is the act of expressing the speaker’s intention.

II. Fill in each blank below with one word which begins with the letter given:

13. P_________ is the study of how speakers of a language use sentences to effect successful communication.

14. What essentially distinguishes s_______ and pragmatics is whether in the study of meaning the context of use is considered.

15. The notion of c_________ is essential to the pragmatic study of language.

16. If we think of a sentence as what people actually utter in the course of communication, it becomes an u___________.

17. The meaning of a sentence is a_______, and decontextualized.

18. C________ were statements that either state or describe, and were thus verifiable.

19. P________ were sentences that did not state a fact or describe a state, and were not verifiable.

20. A l_________ act is the act of uttering words, phrases, clauses. It is the act of conveying literal meaning by means of syntax, lexicon and phonology.

21. An i__________ act is the act of expressing the speaker’s intention; it is the act performed in saying something.

22. A c_________ is commit the speaker himself to some future course of action.

23. An e________ is to express feelings or attitude towards an existing state.

24. There are four maxims under the cooperative principle: the maxim of q_______, the maxim of quality, the maxim of relation and the maxim of manner.

III. There are four choices following each statement. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement:

25. _________ does not study meaning in isolation, but in context.

A. Pragmatics         B. Semantics

C. Sense relation      D. Concept

26. The meaning of language was considered as something _______ in traditional semantics.

A. contextual          B. behaviouristic

C. intrinsic             D. logical

27. What essentially distinguishes semantics and pragmatics is whether in the study of meaning _________ is considered.

A. reference             B. speech act

C. practical usage     D. context

28. A sentence is a _________ concept, and the meaning of a sentence is often studied in isolation.

A. pragmatic           B. grammatical

C. mental                D. conceptual

29. If we think of a sentence as what people actually utter in the course of communication, it becomes a(n) _________.

A. constative          B. directive

C. utterance           D. expressive

30. Which of the following is true ?

A. Utterances usually do not take the form of sentences.

B. Some utterances cannot be restored to complete sentences.

C. No utterances can take the form of sentences.

D. All utterances can be restored to complete sentences.

31. Speech act theory did not come into being until __________.

A. in the late 50’s of the 20the century

B. in the early 1950’s

C. in the late 1960’s

D. in the early 21st century.

32. __________ is the act performed by or resulting from saying something; it is the consequence of, or the change brought about by the utterance.

A. A locutionary act              B. An illocutionary act

C. A perlocutionary act          D. A performative act

33. According to Searle, the illocutionary point of the representative is ______.

A. to get the hearer to do something

B. to commit the speaker to something’s being the case

C. to commit the speaker to some future course of action

D. to express the feelings or attitude towards an existing state of affairs.

34. All the acts that belong to the same category share the same purpose, but they differ __________.

A. in their illocutionary acts      B. in their intentions expressed

C. in their strength or force      D. in their effect brought about

35. __________ is advanced by Paul Grice

A. Cooperative Principle                                        B. Politeness Principle

C. The General Principle of Universal Grammar       D. Adjacency Principle

36. When any of the maxims under the cooperative principle is flouted, _______ might arise.

A. impoliteness                     B. contradictions

C. mutual understanding        D. conversational implicatures

IV. Define the terms below:

37. pragmatics               38. context           39. utterance meaning

40. sentence meaning      41. constative       42. performative

43. locutionary act          44. illocutionary act

45. perlocutionary act      46. Cooperative Principle

V. Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible. Give examples for illustration if necessary:

47. How are semantics and pragmatics different from each other ?

48. How does a sentence differ from an utterance ?

49. How does a sentence meaning differ from an utterance meaning?

50. Discuss in detail the locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act.

51. Searle classified illocutionary act into five categories. Discuss each of them in detail with examples.

52. What are the four maxims under the cooperative principle ?

53. How does the flouting of the maxims give rise to conversational implicatures ?