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Chapter 4:Syntax

I. Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False:

1. Syntax is a subfied of linguistics that studies the sentence structure of language, including the combination of morphemes into words.

2.Grammatical sentences are formed following a set of syntactic rules.

3. Sentences are composed of sequence of words arranged in a simple linear order, with one adding onto another following a simple arithmetic logic.

4.Universally found in the grammars of all human languages, syntactic rules that comprise the system of internalized linguistic knowledge of a language speak-er are known as linguistic competence.

5. The syntactic rules of any language are finite in number, but there is no limit to the number of sentences native speakers of that language are able to produce and comprehend.

6. In a complex sentence, the two clauses hold unequal status, one subordinating the other.

7. Constituents that can be substituted for one another without loss of grammaticality belong to the same syntactic category.

8. Minor lexical categories are open because these categories are not fixed and new members are allowed for.

9. In English syntactic analysis, four phrasal categories are commonly recognized and discussed, namely, noun phrase, verb phrase, infinitive phrase, and auxiliary phrase.

10. In English the subject usually precedes the verb and the direct object usually follows the verb.

11.What is actually internalized in the mind of a native speaker is a complete list of words and phrases rather than grammatical knowledge.

12. A noun phrase must contain a noun, but other elements are optional.

13. It is believed that phrase structure rules, with the insertion of the lexicon, generate sentences at the level of D-structure.

14. WH-movement is obligatory in English which changes a sentence from affirmative to interrogative.

 

II. Fill in each of the following blanks with one word which begins with the letter given:

15. A s________ sentence consists of a single clause which contains a sub-ject and a predicate and stands alone as its own sentence.

16. A s______ is a structurally independent unit that usually comprises a number of words to form a complete statement, question or command.

17. A s______ may be a noun or a noun phrase in a sentence that usually precedes the predicate.

18. The part of a sentence which comprises a finite verb or a verb phrase and which says something about the subject is grammatically called p_________.

19. A c_________ sentence contains two, or more, clauses, one of which is incorporated into the other.

20. In the complex sentence, the incorporated or subordinate clause is normally called an e_______ clause.

21. Major lexical categories are o___ categories in the sense that new words are constantly added.

22. A _____ Condition on case assignment states that a case assignor and a case recipient should stay adjacent to each other.

23. P_______ are syntactic options of UG that allow general principles to operate in one way or another and contribute to significant linguistic variations between and among natural languages.

24. The theory of C_____condition explains the fact that noun phrases appear only in subject and object positions.

 

III. There are four given choices for each statement below. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement:

25. A sentence is considered ____ when it does not conform to the grammati-cal knowledge in the mind of native speakers.

A. right                 B. wrong

C. grammatical      D. ungrammatical

26. A __________ in the embedded clause refers to the introductory word that introduces the embedded clause.

A. coordinator        B. particle            C. preposition       D. subordinator

27. Phrase structure rules have ____ properties.

A. recursive              B. grammatical

C. social                   D. functional

28. Phrase structure rules allow us to better understand _____________.

A. how words and phrases form sentences.

B. what constitutes the grammaticality of strings of words

C. how people produce and recognize possible sentences

D. All of the above.

29. Syntactic movement is dictated by rules traditionally called ________.

A. transformational rules    B. generative rules

C. phrase structure rules    D. x-bar theory

30. The theory of case condition accounts for the fact that __________.

A. noun phrases appear only in subject and object positions.

B. noun phrases can be used to modify another noun phrase

C. noun phrase can be used in adverbial positions

D. noun phrase can be moved to any place if necessary.

31. The sentence structure is ________.

A. only linear           B. Only hierarchical

C. complex              D. both linear and hierarchical

32. The syntactic rules of any language are ____ in number.

A. large             B. small             C. finite            D. infinite

33. The ________ rules are the rules that group words and phrases to form grammatical sen-tences.

A. lexical              B. morphological

C. linguistic           D. combinational

34._______ rules may change the syntactic representation of a sentence.

A. Generative           B. Transformational

C. X-bar                  D. Phrase structure

IV. Define the following terms:

35. syntax             36. Sentence           37. coordinate sentence

38. syntactic categories           39. grammatical relations

40. linguistic competence        41. transformational rules

42. D-structure

V. Answer the following questions:

43. What are the basic components of a sentence?

44. What are the major types of sentences Illustrate them with examples.

45. Are the elements in a sentence linearly structured? Why?

46. What are the advantages of using tree diagrams in the analysis of sentence structures?

47. What is NP movement. Illustrate it with examples.