教学大纲
授课教案
教学课件
作业习题及答案
英语语言学试卷及答案
主讲教师授课录像
 
 首页 > 教学资源 > 作业习题

Chapter 10:Language Acquisition

I. Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False:

1. L1 development and L2 development seem to involve the same processes.

2. The capacity to acquire one’s first language is a fundamental human trait that all human beings are equally well possessed with.

3. All normal children have equal ability to acquire their first language.

4. Children follow a similar acquisition schedule of predictable stages along the route of language development across cultures, though there is an idiosyncratic variation in the amount of time that takes individuals to master different aspects of the grammar.

5. Humans can be said to be predisposed and biologically programmed to acquire at least one language.

6. Some languages are inferior, or superior, to other languages.

7. Language acquisition is primarily the acquisition of the vocabulary and the meaning of language.

8. Human beings are genetically predetermined to acquire language, this genetic predisposition is a sufficient condition for language development.

9. Children who grow up in culture where caretaker speech is absent acquire their native language more slowly than children who are exposed to caretaker speech.

10. In mother tongue acquisition, normal children are not necessarily equally successful.

11. For the vast majority of children, language development occurs spontaneously and require little conscious instruction on the part of adults.

12. The available evidence to date indicates that an explicit teaching of correct forms to young children plays a minor role at best.

13. Correction and reinforcement are not key factors in child language development as they were claimed to be.

14. Imitation, plays at best a very minor role in the child’s mastery of language.

15. Observations of children in different language areas of the world reveal that the developmental stages are similar, possibly universal, whatever the nature of the input.

16. A child’s babbling seems to depend on the presence of acoustic, auditory input.

17. In general, the two-word stage begins roughly in the second half of the child’s first year.

18. Children’s two-word expressions are absent of syntactic or morphological markers.

19. Children first acquire the sounds in all languages of the world, no matter what language they are exposed to, and in late stages acquire the more difficult sounds.

20. Language acquisition begins at about the same time as lateralization does and is normally complete, as far as the essentials are concerned, by the time that the process of lateralization comesto an end.

 

II. Fill in each blank below with one word which begins with the letter given:

21. The first language a____________ refers to the development of a first or native language.

22. According to a n__________ view of language acquisition, humans are quipped with the neural prerequisites for language and language use, just as birds are biologically prewired to learn the songs of their species.

23. A caretaker speech, also called m______ or b______, is the type of modified speech typically addressed to young children.

24. B_________ learning theory suggested that a child’s verbal behaviour was conditioned through association between a stimulus and the following response.

25. Children’s one-word utterances are also called h__________ sentences, because they can be used to express a concept or predication that would be associated with an entire sentence in adult speech.

26. The early multiword utterances of children lack inflectional morphemes and most minor lexical categories, they are often referred to as t__________ speech.

27. A___________ refers to the gradual and subconscious development of ability in the first language by using it naturally in daily communicative situations.

28. The C________ Analysis was founded on the belief that it was possible, by establishing the linguistic differences between the native and target language systems, to predict what problems learners of a particular second language would face and the types of errors they would make.

29. The language that a learner constructs at a given stage of SLA is known as i_________.

30. Learners subconsciously use their first language knowledge in learning a second language. This is known as language t___________.

31. Motivation in language learning can be defined in terms of the learner’s overall goal or orientation. I_________ motivation occurs when the learner’s goal is functional and i________ motivation occurs when the learner’s goal is social.

 

III. There are four choices following each statement. Mark the one that can best complete the statement:

32. In first language acquisition, imitation plays _________.

A. a minor role      B. a significant role

C. a basic role      D. no rule

33. Linguists have found that for the vast majority of children, language development occurs _____________.

A. with much imitation

B. with little conscious instruction

C. with much correction from their parents

D. with little linguistic input

34. The development of linguistic skills involves the acquisition of ____ rules rather than the mere memorization of words and sen-tences .

A. cultural                 B. grammatical

C. behaviour              D. pragmatic

35. ____ has been found to occur usually in children’ s pronunciation or reporting of the truthfulness of utterances, rather than in the grammaticality of sentences.

A. Punishment             B. Instruction

C. Reinforcement         D. Imitation

36. According to the _______, the acquisition of a second language involves, and is dependent on, the acquisition of the culture of the target language community.

A. acculturation view      B. mentalist view

C. behaviourist view       D. conceptualist view

37. In general, a good second learner is an adolescent ________.

A. who has a strong and well-defined motivation to learn

B. who seeks out all chances to interact with the input

C. who is willing to identify himself with the culture of the target language community

D. all the above

38. The optimum age for second language acquisition is ________________.

A. early teenage    B. after puberty

C. at puberty        D. after the brain lateralization

39. The formal instruction in second language acquisition ___________.

A. has no effect at all       B. has a powerful delayed effect

C. has very little effect       D. has unsatisfactory effect

40. ________ is believed to be a major source of incorrect forms resistant to further instruction.

A. The second language learners’ unwillingness to learn

B. The Poor classroom teaching

C. The fossilization of the learner’s interlanguage

D. The learner’s lack of instrumental motivation

41. Which of the following is not true

A. Interlanguage is a product of communicative strategies of the learner.

B. Interlanguage is a product of mother tongue interference.

C. Interlanguage is a product of overgeneralization of the target language rules.

D. Interlanguage is the representation of learners’ unsystematic L2 rules.

42. _________, except those with mental or physical impairments, are better or worse first language acquirers.

A. Some men          B. Almost all men

C. No men             D. Few men

IV. Explain the following terms:

43. caretaker speech

44. holophrastic sentences

45. telegraphic speech

46. second language acquisition

47. acquisition

48. learning

49. transfer

50. interlanguage

51. fossilization

52. instrumental motivation

53. integrative motivation

54. acculturation

V. Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible. Give examples for illustration if necessary:

55. What’s the difference between acquisition and learning, according to Krashen?

56. How do the learner factors potentially influence the way in which a second language is acquired?

57. What is the role of input for SLA?

58. How do you understand interlanguage?

59. Discuss the contrastive analysis in detail.

60. What are the major stages that a child has to follow in first language development? What are the features of the linguistic forms at each stage?

61. What is the role of correction and reinforcement in first language acquisition?

62. Why do we say language acquisition is primarily the acquisition of the grammatical system of language?

63. Discuss the biological basis of language acquisition.

64. What is the role of imitation in first language acquisition?